Monday, 12 November 2018

RECIPROCAL LEVELLING



RECIPROCAL LEVELLING
   We have found by the principle of equalizing backsight and foresight distances that if the level is placed exactly midway between two points and staff reading are taken to determine the difference of level, then the errors (due to inclined of collimation line, curvature and refraction) are automatically eliminated. But in the case of a river or valley, it is not possible to set up the level midway between the two points on opposite banks. In such case the method of reciprocal levelling is adopted, which involves reciprocal observation both banks of the river or valley.
   In reciprocal leveling, the level is set up on the both banks of the river or valley and two sets of staff readings are taken by holding the staff on both banks. In this case, it is found that the errors are completely eliminated and true difference of level is equal to the mean of the true apparent differences of level.

Procedure  

[1]. Suppose A and B are two points on the opposite banks of a river. The level is set up near A and after proper temporary adjustment, staff readings are taken at A and B. Suppose the readings are a₁ and b₁ (Fig. – L.23.a).





[2]. The level is shifted and set up very near B and after proper adjustment, staff reading are taken at A and B. suppose the readings are a₂ and b₂ (Fig. – L.23.b).

Let     h = true difference of level between A and B
          e = combined error due curvature, refraction and collimation (The error may be positive or negative, here we assume positive)

In the first case,

Correct staff reading at A = a₁         (as the level very near A)
Correct staff reading at B = b₁ - e

True difference between A and B,

           h = a₁ – (b₁ – e)    (fall from B to A)   ……. (1)

In the second case,

Correct staff reading at B = b₂         (as the level very near B)
Correct staff reading at A = a₂ - e

True difference of level,

           h = (a₂ –e) - b₂            …….……. (2)

From (1) and (2), 

           2h = a₁ – (b₁ – e) + (a₂ – e) - b₂
                = a₁ – b₁ + e + a₂ – e - b₂

              h = [(a₁ – b₁)+(a₂ – b₂)]/2

It may be observed that the error is eliminated and that the true difference is equal to the mean of two apparent differences of level between A and B.


(Next post on “METHODS OF CALCULATION OF REDUCE LEVEL”)

Sunday, 4 November 2018

PRINCIPLE OF EQUALISING BACKSIGHT AND FORESIGHT DISTANCES


PRINCIPLE OF EQUALISING BACKSIGHT AND FORESIGHT DISTANCES

   In levelling, the line of collimation should be horizontal when the staff readings are taken. Again the fundamental relation is that the line of collimation should be exactly parallel to the axis of the bubble. So, when the bubble is at the centre of its run, the line of collimation is just horizontal. But sometimes the permanent adjustment of level may be disturbed and the line of collimation may not be parallel to the axis of the bubble. In such case, due to the inclination of the line of collimation, cross in levelling are lickly to occur. But it is found that if the backsight and foresight distances are kept equal, then the error due to the inclination of the collimation line is automatically eliminated.



Case I – When the line of collimation inclined upwards Let A and B be two points whose true difference of level is required. The level is set up at O, exactly midway between A and B (Fig. – L.16).



Let θ = angle of inclination of collimation line.
   Aa = true reading
  Aa₁ = observed staff reading on A
Error = Aa₁ - Aa = aa₁ = D tanθ
So true reading Aa = Aa₁ - aa₁ = Aa₁ - D tanθ     ………..(1)

Similarly, Bb = true reading
Bb₁ = observed staff reading on B
Error = Bb₁ - Bb = bb₁ = D tanθ
So true reading Bb = Bb₁ - bb₁ = Bb₁ - D tanθ    ………….(2)

From (1) and (2),
True difference of level between A and B = Aa – Bb
                                               = Aa₁ - D tanθ - Bb₁ + D tanθ
                                               = Aa₁ - Bb₁

Thus, this is seen that the error due to inclination of the collimation line is completely eliminated and the apparent difference is equal to the true difference.

Case II – When the line of collimation inclined downwards The staff readings on A and B are taken after setting the level at O. Suppose the readings are a₂ and b₂ (Fig. – L.17).





Here,   Aa = true staff reading
  Aa₂ = observed staff reading on A
Error = Aa - Aa₂ = aa₂ = D tanθ
So true reading Aa = Aa₂ + aa₂ = Aa₂ + D tanθ     ………..(1)

Similarly, Bb = true reading
Bb₂ = observed staff reading on B
Error = Bb - Bb₂ = bb₂ = D tanθ
So true reading Bb = Bb₂ + bb₂ = Bb₂ + D tanθ    ………….(2)

From (1) and (2),
True difference of level between A and B = Aa – Bb
                                                     = Aa₂ + D tanθ - Bb₂ - D tanθ
                                                     = Aa₂ - Bb₂

Thus, this is seen that the error due to inclination of the collimation line is completely eliminated and the apparent difference is equal to the true difference.

So, always remember that the level should be placed exactly midway between backsight and foresight in order to eliminate any error.

CORRECTION TO BE APPLIED

(1). Curvature correction: For long sights, the curvature of the earth effect staff readings. The line of sight is horizontal, but the level line is curved and parallel to the mean spheroidal surface of the earth (Fig. – L.18).   



   The vertical distance between the line of sight and level line at a particular place is called the curvature correction. Due to curvature, objects appear lower than they really are.

Curvature correction always subtractive (i.e. negative) 
Let   AB = D = horizontal distance in kilometers.
       BD = Cc = curvature correction
       DC = AC = R = radius of earth
       DD’ = diameter, considered as 12742 km

From right angle triangle ABC (Fig. – L.19).

  
     BC² = AC² + AB²
     (R + Cc) ² = R² + D²
or  R² + 2RCc + Cc² = R² + D²
or  2R X Cc = D²     (Cc² is neglected as it is very small in comparison to the
                                 diameter of the earth)

Curvature correction   Cc = D²/2R

Cc = (D² x 1000)/12742 = 0.0785D² m   (negative)

Hence,   True staff reading = observed staff reading – curvature correction.
(2). Refraction correction: Rays of light are refracted when they pass through layers of air of varying density. So, when long sights are taken, the line of sight refracted towards the surface of the earth in a curved path. The radius of this curve seven times that of the earth under normal atmospheric conditions. Due to the effect of refraction, objects appear higher than they really are. But the effect of curvature varies with the atmospheric conditions.

However, on an average, the refraction correction is taken one-seventh of the curvature correction.

               Cr = 1/7 x D²/2R
Refraction correction, Cr = 1/7 x 0.0785D² = 0.0112D² m (positive)

Refraction correction is always additive (i.e. positive)

True reading = observed staff reading + refraction correction

(3). Combined correction: The combined effect of curvature and refraction is as follows:

Combined correction = curvature correction + refraction correction
                               = -0.0785D² + 0.0112D²
                               = -0.0673D² m

So, combined correction always subtractive (i.e. negative)

True reading = observed staff reading - combined correction

Combined correction may also be expressed as

                          D²/2R – 1/7 x D²/2R = 6/7 x D²/2R   (negative)


(4). Visible horizon distance

Let    AB = D = visible horizon distance in kilometers (Fig. – L.20).


Considering curvature and refraction corrections,

                       h = 0.0673D²

                       D = √(h/0.0673)
(5). Dip of horizon

AB = D = tangent of earth at A
BD = horizontal line perpendicular to OB
θ = dip of horizon

The angle between the horizontal line and the tangent line is known as the dip of the horizon. It is equal to the subtended by the arc AC at the centre of the earth (Fig. – L.21).



Dip θ = arc AC/radius of earth     in radians

θ = D/R, in radians  (Taking AC approx, equal to AB)
 
Hear, D and R must be expressed in the same unit.


(6). Sensitiveness of the bubble: The term sensitiveness in the context of a bubble means the effect caused by the deviation of the bubble per division of the graduation of the bubble tube.
   Sensitiveness is expressed in term of the radius of the curvature of the upper surface of the tube or by an angle through which the axis is tilted for the deflection of one division of the graduation.

Determining sensitiveness: consider Fig. L.22. Suppose the level was set up at O at a distance D from the staff at P. The staff reading is taken with the bubble at extreme right end (i.e. at E). Say it is PA. Another staff reading taken with the bubble at the extreme left end (i.e. at E₁). Let it is be PB  



Let,   D = distance between level and staff
        S = intercept between the upper and lower sights,
        n = number of divisions through the bubble is reflected,
        R = radius of curvature of the tube,
        θ = angle subtended by arc EE₁, and
        d = length of the division of the graduation, expressed in the same unit
              as D and S.

Movement of centre of bubble = EE₁ = nd
Triangle OEE₁ and ACB are similar.

Here,           Rθ = arc EE₁

or                θ = EE₁/R = nd/R   …….(1)   (as arc EE₁ = chord EE₁)

Again           EE₁/R = S/D   (height of triangle OEE₁ may be considered as R)

or                 nd/R = S/D      ……………. (2)

From (1) and (2),    

                   θ = nd/R = S/D   …………(3)

Therefore,      R = (nd x D)/S

Let                θ’ = angular value for one division in radians

                     θ’ = θ/n = S/D x 1/n radians
                    
                     θ’ = S/(D x n) x 206265 secs. (1 radian = 206265 secs.)


(Next post on “RECIPROCAL LEVELLING”)




Sunday, 14 October 2018

TYPES OF LEVELING OPERATION




TYPES OF LEVELING OPERATION

(1). Simple levelling: When the difference of level between two points is determined by setting of levelling instrument midway between the points, the process is called simple levelling.
   Suppose A and B are two points whose difference of level is to be determined. The level is set up at O. After proper temporary adjustment the staff reading on A and B are taken. The difference of level between A and B (Fig. - L.10).   




(2). Differential levelling: Differential levelling is adopted when (i) the points are a great distance apart, (ii) the difference of elevation between the points is large, (iii) there are obstacles between the points.
   This method is also known as compound levelling or continuous levelling. In this method the level is set up at several suitable positions and staff readings are taken at all of these.
   Consider Fig.- L.11. Supposed it is required to know the difference of level between A and B. The level is set up at points O₁, O₂, O₃, etc. After temporary adjustments, staff readings are taken at every set up. The points C₁, C₂ and C₃ are known as change points. Then the level between A and B is found out. If the difference is positive, A is lower than B. If it is negative, A is higher than B.
   Knowing the RL of A, that of B can be calculated.     




(3). Fly levelling: When differential levelling is done in order to connect a bench mark to the starting of the alignment of any project, is called fly levelling. Fly levelling is also done to connect the BM of any intermediate point of the alignment for checking the accuracy of the work. In such levelling only the back-sight and fore-sight readings are taken at every set up of the level and no distances are measure along the direction of levelling (Fig. – L.12). The level should be set up just midway between the BS and the FS. 



(4). Longitudinal or profile levelling: The operation of taking levels along the centre line of any alignment (road, railway, etc.) at regular intervals is known as longitudinal levelling. In this operation, the backsight, intermediate sight and foresight readings are taken at regular intervals, at every set up of instrument. The chainages of the points are noted in the level book. This operation is undertaken in order to determine the undulation of the ground surface along the profile line (Fig. – L.13).



(5). Cross-sectional levelling: The operation of taking levels transverse to the direction of longitudinal levelling, is known as cross-sectional levelling. The cross-sections are taken at regular intervals (such as 10 m, 20 m, 40 m, 50 m, etc.) along the alignment. Cross-sectional levelling is done in order to know the nature of the ground across the centre line of the alignment (Fig. – L.14).   



(6). Check levelling: The fly leveling done at the end of the day’s work to connect the finishing point with the starting point on that particular day is known as check levelling. It is undertaken in order to check the accuracy of the day’s work (Fig. – L.15).



(Next post on “PRINCIPLE OF EQUALISING BACKSIGHT AND FORESIGHT DISTANCES”)


Sunday, 7 October 2018

DIFFERENT TYPES OF LEVELS


DIFFERENT TYPES OF LEVELS

(1). The Dumpy Level: The telescope of the dumpy level is rigidly fixed to its supports. It cannot remove from its supports nor can it be rotated about its longitudinal axis. The instrument is stable and retains its permanent adjustment for a long time (Fig. - L.3 and L.4).


Fig. L.3 


Fig.- L.4 

(2). The Wye Level (Y-Level): The telescope is held in two ‘Y’ supports. It can be remove from supports and reversed from one end of the telescope to the other end. The ‘Y’ supports consist of two curved clips which may be raised. Those the telescope can be rotated about its longitudinal axis (Fig. - L.5).


 Fig.- L.5

(3). Cook’s Reversible Level: This is a combination of the dumpy level and ‘Y’ level. It is supported by two rigid sockets. The telescope can be rotated about its longitudinal axis, withdrawn from the socket and replaced from one end of the telescope to the other end (Fig. - L.6).


 Fig.- L.6 

(4). Cushing’s Level: The telescope cannot be removed from the sockets and rotated about its longitudinal axis. The eye-piece and object glass are removable and can be interchanged from one end of the telescope to the other end (Fig. - L.7).


Fig. - L.7 

(5). The Modern Tilting Level: The telescope can be tilted slightly about its horizontal axis with the help of its tilting screw. In this instrument the line of collimation is made horizontal for each observation by means of the tilting screw (Fig. - L.8).


Fig.- L.8 

(6). The Automatic Level: This is also known as the self-aligning level. This instrument leveled automatically within a certain tilt range by means of a compensating device (the tilt compensator).  telescope can be tilted slightly about its horizontal axis with the help of its tilting screw. In this instrument the line of collimation is made horizontal for each observation by means of the tilting screw (Fig. - L.9).


Fig.- L.9

 (Next post on “TYPES OF LEVELING OPERATION”)

RECIPROCAL LEVELLING

RECIPROCAL LEVELLING     We have found by the principle of equalizing backsight and foresight distances that if the level is pla...